Although it may be argued that this is postcompetitive activity, in the committee’s view some work needs to be done to ensure safety and to explore rapid charging. The underlying operations may be different in how the steering is achieved for a particular vehicle and it is not needed for a driver to understand the full details. Now, ever more complex electronic control systems, higher compute performance, rising data rates, and fewer electronic control units (ECUs) per car mean significant design, integration, and … To overcome some of these limitations, a configuration known as interior permanent magnet (IPM) designs has evolved. The simulation currently being used is KIVA III, developed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Further details on energy storage and power electronics are contained in the PHEV R&D plan.11, The design of a PHEV battery requires the simultaneous optimization of power, energy, and life while maintaining safety and reducing cost. Available on the Web at . A single amount of $1 million will be awarded for the development of an onboard hydrogen storage material that meets or exceeds a set of performance targets specified in the competition announcement. Security subsystems are not specific to automotive. Pennsylvania State University: This activity uses a flat-panel display glass as a dielectric material and aluminum electrodes. Battery Chargers. The BES focuses on long-term needs, such as a basic understanding of materials, interfacial charge transfer, and the development of tools and processes for the design of new materials. Automotive Subsystems Johnson Electric develops innovative solutions for global market leaders in automotive lighting. Importantly, the materials technical team has shown that major cost savings appear possible through the use of polyolefin for the feedstock in making carbon fibers.22 As with all lightweight materials applications, the trade-offs between cost and weight will need to be reevaluated as the price of oil changes. Wade, 2001. Primary areas for development are similar to those for power electronics: to reduce size, losses, and cost. The VT efforts for PHEVs are directed at developing higher-energy batteries that meet the targets (see Table 3-4) established by the DOE and USABC for commercial viability. It should be noted that the DOE has a target of $300/kWh for a PHEV-40 in 2014.14. The search for suitable onboard hydrogen storage materials has been broadly based, and significant progress is reported. Although over the cost target, the outcome was judged as demonstrating that magnesium was both technically feasible and potentially cost-effective in these applications. a Generally the “full” mass (including hydrogen) is used, for systems that gain weight, the highest mass during discharge is used. Conventional vehicles have a large number of electrical systems to control emissions, passenger comfort, and safety that are not discussed here. Power plant of a vehicle can be of the following types: Power is produced by the engine and transferred to the wheels to propel the vehicle. The Partnership is commended for conducting this cost study, and it is hoped that such investigations will continue for different conditions and scenarios. SOURCE: Rogers (2009). g For delivery the storage system, in the near term, the forecourt should be capable of delivering 10,000 psi (700 bar or ca. Heating and cooling system A heating and cooling system that can let that automobile become warmer or cooler. However, two separate DOE-funded studies, with independent oversight, have concluded that at volumes of 500,000 units per year, the cost per kilowatt for the fuel cell subsystem, including the fuel cell and BoP, will be approximately $60-$70/kW (Satyapal, 2009; James and Kalinoski, 2009; Sinha et al., 2009). Catalyst quantities required to support the hydrogen and oxygen reaction also contribute to both metrics. As the number of potential vehicle fuel cell manufacturers has been reduced in the current (2009) time frame, it is extremely important to maintain continuity and commitment regarding fuel cell technology from the perspective of the United States. Others are safety related (air bags). See, for example, . View our suggested citation for this chapter. Inside of each transit car there are also subsystems, such as the car climate control system. Expensive “aerospace quality” carbon fiber is needed in the construction of the onboard pressure vessel for hydrogen for HFCVs. 2000. However, realizing the need for high-temperature drivers to accompany the emergence of high-temperature power devices, this project is an enabler for the higher-temperature operation of inverters and converters. Recommendation 3-19. Since the National Research Council’s (NRC’s) Phase 2 review of the FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership research program (NRC, 2008), changes in the country’s energy situation have occurred. But given time and care it's possible -- the build just has to be taken one step at a time. “blocking” technology for vehicle introduction. The SOI gate driver was packaged for high-temperature application using solders. The lithium nickelate system has the highest energy density, and the lithium iron phosphate is considered inherently safer than the other two systems. The Partnership’s budget for electrochemical energy technologies has increased as the importance of PHEV battery development has increased. However, significant progress has been and continues to be made, as evidenced by field and laboratory testing. A slow revolving engine produces little power which is not sufficient to accelerate. Therefore, the vehicle. For fuel cell systems, purity meets SAE J2719, Information Report on the Development of a Hydrogen Quality Guideline in Fuel Cell Vehicles. The DOE (2009c) stated in the response that the issue of materials for pressurized tanks is being addressed in other parts of the program and in future solicitations. This basic vehicle con・“uration was used from the earliest cars through the late 1960s or 1970s, with some notable exceptions. Additional sensing devices are being developed and integrated into the engine cylinder and power train that facilitate better control of the in-cylinder conditions and power-train energy flow management, which is a necessity for the integration of LTC operation into the engine map. Energy efficiency: Charging and discharging of hydrogen to a storage tank or storage material can be an energy consumer (requiring heating and/or cooling), which impacts the overall system efficiency. answer choices . b 2003 US$; total cost includes any component replacement if needed over 15 years or 150,000 mile life. Thus, research aimed at significantly higher hydrogen storage capability needs to be kept as a research objective. Until recently, the program primarily focused on developing technologies that would allow U.S. automakers to make production and marketing decisions by 2015 on hydrogen fuel cell-powered vehicles. Cost projections are not currently available; laboratory-scale samples are currently expensive, but there is promise in the expanding volume of applications that use flat-panel display glass material. ANL is developing a one-fifth scale pilot operation to assess how to recover residual metals and polymers from the residue from shredders. The team has assumed that the base engine cost will be $20/kW, and the incremental cost for the technology improvements, which includes enhanced aftertreatment, will be $10/kW. 4.5 times higher per unit of volume of “fuel storage” and approximately 4 times higher per unit of mass of “fuel storage” than those of the HFCV. Chemical hydrogen storage systems (typically regenerated off-board). This conversion is done inside a piston cylinder arrangement where controlled explosion of fuel-air mixture is done which produces a very high pressure inside. Nonetheless the current materials are not close to the long-range goals of the Partnership. Furthermore, continued funding, especially of the high-risk concepts, will help facilitate next-generation technologies. The near-term introduction of such technologies into existing production facilities will reduce the growth in transportation petroleum use during a transition to alternative power plants and power-train configurations. If slip is more, then the power transmitted is less. The punching and assembly of laminations is expensive, and for years the “holy grail” of soft magnetic materials has been to discover a new material that has both high electrical resistivity and high permeability at the flux density levels needed. The committee believes that federal funding for fuel cell activities is appropriate and that it remains extremely important, especially for the high-risk-related technical barriers. DOE/GO-102009-2950 (November). Although induction motors are usually used as motors, they can also function as generators. A High-Performance Interior Permanent Magnet Machine for Hybrid Vehicles. Federal Grant Number DE-ACO2-06CH11357. Compact and efficient motors and power electronics are essential to all four types of vehicles that the Partnership is working on, namely, HFCVs, HEVs, PHEVs, and BEVs. The set of linkages in between the engine and the wheels constitute the drive train. Hydrogen basic research is well funded in the FY 2009 program, and new concepts will continue to be supported. The federal sponsorship of the hydrogen storage activities within the FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership is an appropriate federal role. The public-private partnership to develop vehicles that require less petroleum-based fuel and emit fewer greenhouse gases should continue to include fuel cells and other hydrogen technologies in its research and development portfolio. “Announcement for H Prize.” Available on the Web at . Mass reduction is an important means of improving fuel economy. If the price of oil doubles, for example, the incentive to use carbon fibers in cars will increase because of the reduction in weight, but the cost of the polyolefin and therefore the carbon fiber will also increase. “Hydrogen Program Overview.” DOE Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18. Recommendation 3-24. More work will be required to assess the safety of battery chargers as a function of the cell sizes and battery pack configurations, as well as any changes in the battery chemistry that are ongoing in Li-ion battery development. Since the Phase 2 review, more than 350 materials approaches for hydrogen storage were investigated, of which 68 percent have been discontinued and 32 percent are still under investigation. Key achievements highlighted by the DOE and made since the Phase 2 review (NRC, 2008) are primarily performance- and cost-related: in particular, fuel cell stack technology tested under realistic on-road operating conditions. The real-world experience with pressurized tanks is providing information on R&D issues. Also of note, the DOE Vehicle/Infrastructure Demonstration Program reported having achieved an HFCV range of 196 to 254 miles. None of the approaches (neither material-based nor physical storage) meets the combined targets. The lower the catalyst loadings, the greater the potential impact on performance. A sensitivity analysis was conducted for each scenario that estimated the mean cost of the battery to be approximately $360/kWh, varying from $264/kWh to $710/kWh. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Laboratory for Energy and the Environment. The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, Review of the Research Program of the FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership: Third Report, http://www.altdotenergy.com/2009/02/sandia-gm-study-finds-large-scale-biofuel-is-sustainable/, http://www.exxonmobil.com/Corporate/energy_climate_con_vehicle_algae.aspx, http://www.hydrogen.energy.gov/pdfs/review09/program_overview_2009_amr.pdf, http://www.hydrogen.energy.gov/annual_review.html, http://www.whitehouse.gov/agenda/energy_and_environment/, http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/pdfs/mypp/3-2_hybr_elec_prop.pdf, Electric Propulsion and Electrical Systems, http://www.hybridcars.com/news/mercedes-lithium-ion-hybrid-2009.html, http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/pdfs/program/plug-in_summary_rpt.pdf, http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/pdfs/program/phev_rd_plan_june_2007.pdf, http://japancorp.net/Article.Asp?Art_ID=19769, http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/pdfs/merit_review_2009/light-weight_materials/lm_05_warren.pdf, http://www1.eere.energy.gov/hydrogenandfuelcells/pdfs/cyro_compressed_auto.pdf>, http://www.dynalook.com/european-conf-2009/B-V-03.pdf, http://www.eere.energy.gov/hydrogenandfuelcells/mypp/, http://www.hydrogen.energy.gov/news_h-prize_administrator.html>, http://hydrogendoedev.nrel.gov/pdfs/progress09/2009_doe_hydrogen_program_annual_progress_report_cover.pdf, http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/pdfs/merit_review_2009/advanced_power_electronics/ape_08_elrefaie.pdf, http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/pdfs/program/2008_energy_storage.pdf, http://www.hydrogen.energy.gov/pdfs/review09/fc_30_james.pdf, http://www.nrel.gov/vehiclesandfuels/energystorage/pdfs/43166.pdf, http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/pdfs/merit_review_2009/advanced_power_electronics/ape_0_rogers.pdf- 916.8KB, http://www.hydrogen.energy.gov/pdfs/review09/fc_31_sinha.pdf, http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/pdfs/merit_review_2009/advanced_power_electronics/ape_07_taylor.pdf, Appendix A: Biographical Sketches of Committee Members, Appendix B: Committee's Interim Letter Report, Appendix D: Recommendations from National Research Council Review of the FreedomCAR and Fuel Research Program, Phase 2, Appendix E: Committee Meetings and Presentations. Generally, increasing the energy density will decrease the power density, whereas increasing the power density means using thinner electrodes, which will increase cost, reduce life, and may impact safety. The Partnership should consider conducting a project to investigate induction motors as replacements for the permanent magnet motors now almost universally used for electric propulsion. The inverter changes a dc voltage that varies over narrow limits depending on power to an ac voltage of variable amplitude and frequency depending on motor speed and load; thus the two functions can be performed in two stages (making variable “chopped” dc voltage and then variable frequency) called modulator and inverter or in a single stage called a modulating inverter. The PHEV allows for flexibility in the energy being used to power the wheels, whether it is electricity from batteries or fuel powering the ICE. LFEE 2008-05 RP (July). (2009) considered an aggressive weight-reduction program that yielded a 37 percent reduction (230 lb) in the Golf V body-in-white (BIW) which generated a 112 percent ($1,088) increase in cost. 2008. Review of the Research Program of the FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership, Second Report. 2009c. This results in a cost of $1,450 to $3,900 for a 5.5 kWh battery. This seems very promising, but the committee’s information is as of May 2009. Ready to take your reading offline? Furthermore, within these cost assessments it was pointed out that platinum and membrane costs are still significant hindrances to stack cost reduction (currently active areas of DOE-funded efforts). The hydrogen storage technical team and the DOE provide guidance for the work of the COEs. These goals and associated constraints effectively eliminate the continued simple evolution of the gasoline-fueled internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicle as a possible answer. The centers of excellence are well managed and have provided an excellent approach for organizing and managing a large, diverse research activity with many participants at various locations. SOURCE: Advanced Combustion and Emission Control Technical Team, Presentation to the committee, August 4, 2009, Southfield, Michigan. Rogers, S. 2009. Bandivadekar, A., K. Bodek, L. Cheah, C. Evans, T. Groode, J. Heywood, E. Kasseris, M. Kromer, and M. Weiss. The power electronics are composed of a set of semiconductor switches arranged in a block called an inverter, as it converts the dc to ac. This field test included data analysis by NREL and SRNL through a collaborative research and development agreement (CRADA). The DOE, with input from the fuel cell technical team, should evaluate, and in selected cases accelerate, the timing of the “go/no-go” decisions when it is evident that significant technological progress has been made and adopted by the OEMs. 2009. subsystem have yet to become a serious focus partly because of the continuing evolution of the technology (i.e., capital funding for fixed assets is not prudent when the technology may still change). The FY 2009 budget appropriation allowed the program to be supported at a high level for continuing and new R&D activities. Two stroke engines operate under different principles. SOURCE: C. Gittleman (GM) and K. Epping Martin (DOE), “FreedomCAR Fuel Cell Technical Team,” Presentation to the committee, August 4, 2009, Southfield, Michigan. The prime mover for the propulsion system can be an engine, engine-driven generator, battery, or fuel cell, depending on the energy source. is aimed at understanding the fundamental changes that occur in ignition and emission-formation processes when different compounds, such as methyl esters that are found in biofuels, are used in the engine. 70 MPa) compressed hydrogen, liquid hydrogen, or chilled hydrogen (35 to 77 K) and up to 5,000 psi (350 bar or ca. FIGURE 3-8 Schematic of series drive configuration, typical fuel cell vehicle configurations. Most of these subsystems can be implemented using different technologies, and better technologies can improve the performance of … Target dates have been appropriately set for technology down-select decisions: A complete analysis of onboard storage options for 2010 and 2015 targets was scheduled for 2009 as well as a decision point on advanced carbon-based materials and a down-select for chemical hydrogen storage approaches for the 2010 targets. SOURCE: Available at . Significant improvement in their performance can result in battery electric vehicles (BEVs), one of the ways to meet the Partnership’s goal of “energy freedom, environmental freedom, and vehicle freedom.” The FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (FCVT) program (now renamed the Vehicle Technologies [VT] program), has supported the advancement of batteries and ultracapacitors from the beginning as a key to developing hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Such support has been available through the open solicitation process for nearly 8 years under this current program (FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership) and a number of years prior in forerunner efforts such as the Partnership for the Next Generation of Vehicles (PNGV). Hydrogen binding energy on adsorbents has been increased (University of California, Berkeley; University of California, Santa Barbara; and Texas A&M). Thus, there would be an NPV incentive of more than $100 to the buyer if the one-time, up-front added material costs were under $200. The technical team has established the following technical engine target goals for 2010: Engine peak brake thermal efficiency (BTE): 45 percent, Nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions: Tier 2 Bin 5 (T2B5). This is where chemical energy is converted into mechanical energy. “Super LIGHT CAR—the Multi-Material Car Body.” Presented at the 7th European LS-DYNA Conference. These figures are still over two times higher than the target, but significantly lower than the $107/kW presented during the Phase 2 review. The electrification of auxiliaries, matching the engine operation to the fuel characteristics, and reducing friction through advanced lubricants are subjects of investigation. In all of the electric drive vehicles, HEVs, PHEVs, BEVs, and HFCVs, an electric motor provides the traction to the wheels, but in some configurations an electrical generator is also needed (see Figures 3-6, 3-7, and 3-10). In BEV applications the vehicles run on electricity only, and thus high-energy-density batteries are required. The reduction of fiber cost and the use of alternative fibers should be a major focus for the future. The DOE currently has several efforts to reduce the cost of carbon-fiber pressure vessels. This is desirable because it improves efficiency. The fuel cell power-generation subsystem—containing the fuel cell stack and its balance of plant (BoP) consisting of the supporting air and fuel supply, thermal management, and controls—is arguably the most complex and challenging element of the entire hydrogen-fueled vehicle. What is to be created Subsystem-is a system in its own right, except it normally will www.nasa.gov not provide a useful function on its own, it must be integrated with other subsystems (or systems) to make a system. Cost areas include materials of construction and manufacturing methods, and balance of plant components. NiMH battery will not meet the long-term FreedomCAR electrochemical energy storage goals for HEVs of a 15-year life with 25 kW pulse power and a cost of $500 by 2010. It was awarded to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). Hydrogen-fueled ICEs have also been investigated. The DOE should assess which critical technology development efforts are not yielding sufficient progress and ensure that adequate levels of support for alternative pathways are in place. The material and physical storage results to date (obtained in a short time) as well as the Hydrogen Storage Engineering COE are promising with respect to the attainment of the 2015 objectives. Thus the development of the electrochemical couple of lithium manganese oxide spinel cathode and nano-titanium oxide anode is being driven by safety considerations. A car is a system with several subsystems, including the braking subsystem, the electrical subsystem, the engine, the fuel subsystem, the climate-control subsystem, and the passenger subsystem. In powertrain, there’s fuel air or emission control, fuel or air, ignition and misfire, emission control, vehicle speed, idle soeed, computer, and transmission. must be met simultaneously. A novel microstructure was developed to enhance resistivity and magnetic properties. DOE. FIGURE 3-3 Structure of the National Hydrogen Storage Project.
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