Our today’s world is becoming digital and mobile. The theoretical time requirements for a positioning system based on Bluetooth are discussed. The obtained structure in the form of clusters of concerts and participants is then interpreted using meta-information about music genres, band origins, stages, and dates of the performances. This work comprehensively investigates the power consumption of hard drives to determine typical runtime power profiles. Datasets that capture this An alternative solution is to find an approach driven by users, for users. In: PIMRC 2003: 14th IEEE Proceedings on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications, August 2003, vol. We want to explore the possibility of building applications that have their user interface seamlessly distributed across co-located devices. LBS are divided into three nonexclusive categories, such as requests for things or information about existing location, receiving alerts, and tracking individuals or groups. Les possibilités offertes par le Wireless Physical Tracking ont suscité un fort intérêt. A basic Bluetooth sensor system for traffic monitoring consists of a Bluetooth probe device (s) that scans for other Bluetooth-enabled device (s) within its radio proximity, and then stores the data for future analysis and use. On other BT phone (like the Treo), it's entirely possible & quite easy to enable BT discoverability on the phone ONLY to establish pairing with another … From the Android API Guide > Bluetooth > Enabling discoverability:. Finally, an inexpensive and trivially deployed infrastructure for location aware computing is presented, with a series of experiments conducted to determine how best to exploit such an infrastructure. Unable to display preview. The algorithms enable the most "valuable" Bluetooth devices in the network and will disable the others. make such a system work in practice are described. Our analysis and experiments show that the proposed solution takes $O(\sqrt{N})$ to $O(\frac{N}{2})$ beacons for $N$ Test Positions, which is 2-8 times less beacons compared to that by the naive approach, while the analytical bounds are tight with the ILP results with 20\% of gap. On the micro The BDP problem is further formulated into an integer linear program (ILP) and solved in extensive case studies. Les interfaces sans fil de ces objets connectés émettent périodiquement des informations, certaines sont spécifiques aux utilisateurs et permettent par effet de bord d’identifier et de suivre leur déplacements. We highlight the significance of wide fin- gerprints, constructed through scanning multiple channels, for achieving high localization accuracy. With Bluetooth Low Energy beacons, one of the latest technologies for providing proximity and indoor tracking, the current identifiers that characterize a beacon are not sufficient for ordinary users to make informed privacy decisions about the location information that could be shared. Google Scholar Microsoft Bing WorldCat BASE. We explore how sensor systems installed in many buildings today can be used to apportion energy consumption between users. It works in two phases: The first phase is a data training phase in which a radio map for the targeted area is generated in advance, while the second phase is the real-time location determination phase using the radio map. 2208–2212 (2003), Naya, F., Noma, H., Ohmura, R., Kogure, K.: Bluetooth-based indoor proximity sensing for nursing context awareness. A new measurement model is added to the particle filter engine to process incoming Bluetooth data. We discuss practical problems and requirements en- countered setting up the infrastructure using the ultrasonic Active Bat indoor location system, and limitations of the commodity Bluetooth de- vices used. Our today’s world is becoming digital and mobile. Bluetooth tracking without discoverability. The localisation filter in its simplest form is computationally expensive. 2208–2212 (2003), Research shows that context is important to the privacy perceptions associated with technology. It is a widely used concept in navigation software (Chen et al., 2014). 116–133. http://arxiv.org/abs/1306.3133. We implement our proposed system in the Linux OS and evaluate the prototype extensively through both experiments and simulation. It is also possible to forward a position gained from the positioning platforms using the peer-to-peer characteristics in Bluetooth. This is a short-range, low complexity and low cost wireless technology that supports explicit device discovery services. These services are also finding greater use personal computers, while continuing to be used in handheld devices. The discovered factors have similar meaning to the results of the popular Louvain method for community detection. Most Bluetooth trackers require very little power, but only a few come with a replaceable battery. One solution, The significance of location-based services (LBS) continues to grow due to their ability to provide information about physical location in libraries. Indoors, however, even coarse location remains unavailable. Location information is useful for mobile phones. Bluetooth has been identified as a potential location technology that mobile consumer devices already support, easing deployment and maintenance. We address the issues that hinder its performance due to the real environment conditions and provide a deployable protocol. wireless networks has fostered a growing interest in location-aware As applications, rough localizations of drivers in a tunnel and localization of customers in a supermarket are explored and simulated. We implement this exact real-time tracking system and use it as a foundation for a novel application that applies location-based restrictions on access control. The proposed localiza- tion system fully integrates these device discovery procedures into the infrastructure-based network of Bluetooth access points that provides the wireless connectivity inside a building. Use of the platform is illustrated through a practical example, which allows a user's current working desktop to follow them as they move around the environment. With these assumptions taken for granted, theoretical models claim various performance milestones that cannot be achieved in realistic conditions. Supervised learning has been the typical modeling choice in the past. We exploit proximity between Bluetooth devices attached to people and objects for estimating 1) room-level proximity of people and objects, and 2) mutual proximity between moving people and objects. Moreover, the techniques developed in the context of the Horus system are general and can be applied to other WLAN location determination systems to enhance their accuracy. Bluetooth has been identified as a potential location technology that mobile consumer devices already support, … Miscellaneous WLAN-based localization me-thods focus on preferably precise location estimation and tracking. findings and the potential and limitations of the used method. detection is sufficient. The normalized error obtained through our incremental inference is comparable to that of full batch inference, whilst the execution time is more than 100 times faster. devices. The system permits low-cost, rapid As these networks grow in size and complexity, their management becomes increasingly costly, for instance in terms of equipment, software, and people. one or more of the meta-features, effectively revealing preferences of 2020, pp. This sampling scheme is especially suitable for pervasive computing as the computational requirements remain constant in spite of growing data. Security and privacy protection is key in the digital world of today. Therefore, a new autonomous communication concept among neighbor devices is essential for people who is unfamiliar with the IT technology. 2, pp. Outdoor location-based services are now prevalent due to advances in mobile technology and GPS. Bluetooth has been identified as a potential location technology that mobile consumer devices already support, easing deployment and maintenance. The practicality of the system architecture is also proved by the outcome of a test campaign. Indoor localisation is the state-of-the-art to identify and observe a moving human or an object inside a building. If such a need does arise, you might want to know where you can manage your device’s Bluetooth discoverability in Windows 10 and we’re pointing you to the right place. This is a preview of subscription content, Hightower, J., Borriello, G.: Location systems for ubiquitous computing. Fingerprints of received signal strength indicators (RSSI) are used for localization. In: MobiCom 1999: Proceedings of the 5th annual ACM/IEEE international conference on Mobile computing and networking, pp. The main advantage is that this reduces the need for network planning, which reduces the costs of operating the system. This paper presents a new solution using the Weibull function for approximating the Bluetooth signal strength distribution in the data training phase. The methodology also provides a more efficient and more accurate way of obtaining a variety of relevant metrics in the field of consumer behaviour research. We demonstrate a radio beacon-based approach to location, called Place Lab, that can overcome the lack of ubiquity and high-cost found in existing location sensing approaches. Share on. A Python extension module is presented that was created to assist in rapid development and deployment of Bluetooth applications. Abstract. An accurate and reliable Indoor Positioning System (IPS) applicable to most indoor scenarios has been sought for many years. We propose two location algorithms, selective fusion location estimation (SELFLOC) and region of confidence (RoC), which can be used in conjunction with classical location algorithms such as triangulation, or with third-party commercial location estimation systems. Nineteenth Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies. Users. The steps undertaken in this paper in order to come to a proposal for a secure architecture are the analysis of the state of the art of the relevant specifications, the existing risks and the known vulnerabilities the related known attacks. Unfortunately existing systems that achieve the kind of sub-metre accuracies desired by many location-aware applications require large amounts of infrastructure to be installed into the environment. Thus, the model describes the world much as users themselves would. In: MASCOTS 2008: Proceedings of the 16th Annual IEEE International Symposium on Modeling, Analysis, and Simulation of Computer and Telecommunication Systems (2008), International Symposium on Location- and Context-Awareness, University of Cambridge Computer Laboratory, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-01721-6_8. Meanwhile, Blue- tooth is increasingly widely deployed due to its low power consumption and cost. We take a systematic approach and identify the lack of real-time association between human actions and observed energy consumption as one roadblock. This problem is challenging because of the stream nature of data, the complexity and changing nature of contexts. A wide variety of applications can benefit from indoor Bluetooth tracking. Weibull function is applied for approximating the Bluetooth signal strength distribution in the data training phase. In: AASN 2008: First International Workshop on Automated and Autonomous Sensor Networks (2008), Huang, A.: The use of Bluetooth in Linux and location aware computing. For example, enforcing close physical proximity to a patient when using a barcode medication administration system (BCMA) can mitigate the consequences of unsafe barcode scanning workarounds. Question: Q: iPhone Bluetooth Discoverability Is there a way to enable and disable the iPhone's Discoverable Bluetooth mode without having to toggle BT On/Off...? Of particular interest for many ubiquitous computing systems is the ability to track people in indoor environments. In: ICT 2003: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Telecommunications, vol. This paper explores the use of location-awareness to dy- namically optimise the energy consumption of an office. For this purpose, we have used the technique of RSSI fingerprinting and tested three different algorithms. We present experimental results showing that 802.11 and GSM beacons are sufficiently pervasive in the greater Seattle area to achieve 20-30 meter median accuracy with nearly 100% coverage measured by availability in people's daily lives. Bluetooth tracking can be implemented as a new and cost effective practice for marketing research, that provides fast and accurate results and insights. The availability of Bluetooth devices for most phones and the existence of a number of GPS equipped phones in a crowd of phone users enable us to design a Bluetooth aided mobile phone localization strategy. CDMA networks vary their transmission power to accommodate fluctuations in network load. OD matrix is a two-entry table taking census of the zone-to-zone traffic of a geographic area. location-aware services and applications. The results presented here are positive and very promising. Indoors, however, even coarse location remains unavailable. Twenty-third AnnualJoint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies, vol. By analysis of the real-world experimental output, we present results that depict a more realistic view of the target tracking problem, regarding power consumption and the quality of tracking information. around the festival area to discover Bluetooth-enabled mobile phones carried by In this paper, dynamic object binding is proposed to improve the opportunistic localisation system. There are software tools available which allow brute-force discovery of non-discoverable devices, an early example of which is RedFang, but this is usually too complex for a minimal hardware configuration and not necessary for data collection purposes associated with ITS. We evaluate the real-world performance of our algorithms through experiments carried out with a running system in a realistic environment. © 2020 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. However, the main bottleneck of such crowd-sourcing localization systems is a bootstrapping stage, where lack of contributions by users results in no accuracy guarantee and frequent unnecessary prompting for users' input, even for explored areas. A case study of the Ghent Festivities event (1.5 million visitors over 10 days) is described in detail and preliminary results are shown to give an indication of the added value of the methodology for stakeholders of the event. In: Naccache, D. The aim is to enable continuous monitoring of areas where a person moves. We present experimental results that demonstrate the ability of RADAR to estimate user location with a high degree of accuracy. By covering 22 locations in the study area with Bluetooth scanners, we were able to extract 152,487 trajectories generated by 80,828 detected visitors. Finally, we PERVASIVE 2005. A single application interface, termed the universal location framework, is designed to aggregate indoor, outdoor, and proximity sensor technologies. In closing, we provide evidence in support of the location stack's usefulness and we make some recommendations for its potential evolution. 3660, pp. In the broader sense, context awareness uses sensor observations to abstract information about the current situation. A Histogram Maximum Likelihood position estimation based on Bayesian theory is utilized in the positioning phase. 122–128 (2003), Gwon, Y., Jain, R., Kawahara, T.: Robust indoor location estimation of stationary and mobile users. In this paper, we present a novel brain computer interface based home We analyze the design of BT and devise a robust de-anonymization technique that hinges on the apparently benign information leaking from frame encoding, to infer a piconet's clock, hopping sequence, and ultimately the Upper Address Part (UAP) of the master device's physical address, which are never exchanged in clear. Context awareness underpins much of AAL research-human activities are generally context dependent. We show that the proximity information exchanged between several devices can be updated at a rate of more than 1 Hz by effectively choosing the timing parameters of Bluetooth inquiry mechanism. In the final section, a self-designed autonomous SLAM robot platform is introduced to be able to carry out the Bluetooth RSS data collecting. Battery consumption. With all these elements as background, we conclude the paper proposing a design for Secure Architecture for Bluetooth-Enhanced Mobile “Smart” Commerce Environments. We have collected signal strength information from both IEEE 802.11 and Bluetooth wireless network technologies, developed and applied algorithms for determining location using data for each wireless technology, and then used a simple algorithm for fusing the location estimates from both technologies to try to enhance the accuracy of the location estimates. Outdoor location-based services are now prevalent due to advances in mobile technology and GPS. Conference proceedings Publication. There exists a dilemma between the relatively high price of GPS devices and the dependence of location information acquisition on GPS for most phones in current stage. This service is more advanced with JavaScript available, LoCA 2009: Location and Context Awareness 775–784. Spatio-temporal traces of participant mobility and interactions were collected from 33 Bluetooth scanners placed in strategic locations at the festival area to discover Bluetooth-enabled mobile phones carried by the participants. We show that the concerts' clusters can be described by one or more of the meta-features, effectively revealing preferences of participants. We have instrumented at a fine-grained level and present our findings which show that (i) the energy consumed by the electronics of a drive is just as important as the mechanical energy consumption; (ii) the energy required to access data is affected by physical location on a drive; and (iii) the size of data transfers has measurable effect on power consumption. It has an error of less than 0.6 meter on the average and its computational requirements are more than an order of magnitude better than other WLAN location determination systems. The thesis concludes that inertial sensors can be used to track pedestrians in indoor environments. Not logged in Understanding the properties of such wireless signal definitely aids the tracking system design. Moreover, we address and mitigate issues that hinder performance over the wireless medium and provide a fully deployable protocol. This application shows that TM has the potential to support a traditional GIS to analyse interval-based geographical data. The additional devices with tags should allow your family to find the keys, or TV remote fairly quickly. The non-negativity and sparsity of factors are enforced by using the exponential distribution to generate the factors. We created the YanuX Framework to provide the guidelines and tools needed by developers to build those applications. 2009. Outdoor location-based services are now prevalent due to advances in mobile technology and GPS. creating user-oriented applications and extending the sensing capabilities In this paper, we propose a crowd-sourcing localization system that uses both Wi-Fi scene analysis and Bluetooth beacons to address the insufficient contribution challenge. Twitter is planning to add location-based information to every tweet, while Firefox 3.5 is location aware, along with many web search engines. By analysis of the real world experimental output, we present results that depict a more realistic view of the clustering problem, regarding adapting to environmental conditions and the quality of topology control. This paper describes an experiment conducted in a medium- sized room in which six zones have been identified and two Bluetooth transmitters were installed. Having developed an effective means of calculating a pedestrian’s relative movements, a localisation filter is developed that combines relative movement measurements with environmental constraints derived from a map of the environment. These various services are implemented by the interactions between the wearable device and the user. The rest will last about a year and will need to be … It is also possible to burrow deeper into Bluetooth connections to provide connection-based tracking for fine granular or building-wide device tracking, ... Pei et al. 176–191. We have yet to understand, however, to what extent such electronic datasets may serve as a valid proxy for real life social interactions. interactions. © (2010) by International Academy, Research, and Industry Association (IARIA). Some of the location sensing systems discussed include: the Active Badge location system that uses diffuse infrared technology; the Active Bat location system, which uses an ultrasound time-of-flight lateration technique to provide physical positioning; and ad hoc location sensing. A large variety of clustering approaches has been presented focusing on different performance metrics. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, 2005. S. Feldmann, K. Kyamakya, A. Zapater, and Z. Lue. Moreover, 75 works are identified as relevant works in the research topic from a selection of about 4000 works cited in the analyzed surveys. 109--113. In RSSI fingerprinting localization, building a fingerprint database is usually time-consuming and labour-intensive. The limited samples are not able to represent the real signal distribution well in the conventional fingerprint approach such as in an occurrence-based solution. The results show the possibility of indoor positioning through inquiring the Bluetooth-enabled handsets in range. Location awareness is an important capability for mobile computing. The use of sparsely deployed WiFi access points is discussed in detail. Location and Context Awareness (2009) Abstract. Building on top of this model, we introduce a complete system that fairly attributes energy usages of shared resources, and reveals per-person energy footprint information. Therefore, it is important to take better advantage of those devices by coming up with smart ways of integrating and combining them. We designed the YanuX framework, which generalizes and supports the development of this new type of applications. A prototypical payment scenario at cash-desks in a store proves the concept, where customers are required to securely show their electronic store card, i.e., bring their mobile device into a near, non-interfering zone to their cashier. By using an Indian buffet process as the prior distribution, the model can discover the number of contexts automatically. (ed.) All rights reserved. Further, the role of link-strength Other topics related to Bluetooth positioning can be found in, Positioning with Bluetooth Bluetooth Tracking without Discoverability 137 16 Indoor location estimation using multiple wireless technologies, Hallberg, J., Nilsson, M., Synnes, K.: Positioning with Bluetooth. Considering the work amount for generating the radio map, only a few samples of the Radio Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) are typically collected at each reference point. This paper describes a study of Bluetooth radio propagation using an accurate indoor location system to conduct fine-grained signal strength surveys. We show that most of the concerts clusters can be described by a cluster of US bands) and discuss the significance of the Bluetooth Tracking without Discoverability. In this paper, we design a new clustering protocol that adapts to the changes in the environment and the needs and goals of the user applications. This paper presents an experimental study of the feasibility of using multiple wireless technologies simultaneously for location estimation. This approach does not require establishing any connectivity between Bluetooth devices. Part of Springer Nature. This is accomplished through a combination of filtering of the static IID and traffic analysis. Indoor … The Answer According to the documentation, making a device discoverable will always make a popup appear for user confirmation. In: WMASH 2003: Proceedings of the First ACM International Workshop on Wireless Mobile Applications and Services on WLAN (2003), Madhavapeddy, A., Tse, A.: A study of Bluetooth propagation using accurate indoor location mapping. Location is considered as the most important and relevant context information. Using the Bluetooth signal strength
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